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APA Citation Style

This research guide will help students format their research papers using APA citation style.

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What is that last page for?

TrustThe References page is the page at the end of your paper or project listing every source you quoted or paraphrased. Every time you use someone else's ideas within your own work, you must acknowledge them in the format your instructor prescribes (in this case, APA citation style).

These are not words/ideas you simply throw into your paper. The purpose of including sources in your paper is to infuse your own thoughts and ideas with theirs, and to participate in the scholarly conversation around the topic of your paper/project. The References page is the acknowledgement of that infusion and conversation.

(image by flickr user @rondmac)


Changes to References Page in APA 7th ed.

  • Location of publisher no longer included in references
  • Surnames and initials of up to 20 authors should be listed in the reference citation
  • Sources with 21 or more authors list the first 19 followed by an ellipsis (…), then the last author.
  • DOIs are formatted the same as URLs:
  • If a source has both a DOI and URL, only provide the DOI
  • eBooks do not have URLs.
  • URLs are no longer preceded with “Retrieved from” unless a retrieval date is needed.